Snow and Ice, Communities around mountain on "tenterhooks.". “Very often volcanic ash contains microscopic fragments of volcanic glass (obsidian), and the turbine engines of commercial aircraft produce a level of heat sufficient to melt glass. The national park is a dual World Heritage Site for its outstanding natural and intangible cultural values. Volcanoes Atmosphere Ash from Puyehue-Cordón Caulle over Australia and New Zealand, NASA Goddard Space On March 23, 2009, ash was visible on the snowy land surface north of the volcano. For instance, in 1989, a KLM Boeing 747 commercial jet flew right into an ash plume produced by Alaska’s Mt.  The andesitic eruptions formed Tongariro, a steep stratovolcano, reaching a height of 1,978 metres (6,490 ft). Volcanoes. Mount Tongariro erupted again at 1:20 pm on 21 November, ejecting an ash cloud 4000 metres into the air. For other uses, see, List of mountains of New Zealand by height, "Historic volcanic activity: Tongariro and Ngāuruhoe", "Tongariro eruption: Sulphur smell in Blenheim", "Scientists: Tongariro eruption 'unexpected, "Eruption activity subsided for now - civil defence", "VIDEO: Mt Tongariro erupts, huge ash cloud", "Flights cancelled after Tongariro eruption", "Scientists had no warning before Mt Tongariro eruption". This crater may have first erupted in November 1892, when it reportedly ejected water, sand, small stones and pumice.  Geologists had no warning before the eruption, saying it wasn't linked to warnings the week before of elevated activity at nearby Mount Ruapehu. Getting thermal data close to a volcano with conventional infrared sensors is difficult, but VIIRS can detect them close to the source and lower in the atmosphere. Land Ngauruhoe first erupted 2,500 years ago, and erupted 45 times in the 20th century, (61 eruptions since 1839) and most recently in 1977. For a one page fact sheet / poster on Tongariro's volcanoes click VolcanoFactSheetsTongariro2012.pdf (568.43 kB) Tongariro is a massive complex of volcanic cones and craters formed by eruptions from at … The andesitic eruptions formed Tongariro, a steep stratovolcano, reaching a height of 6,490 ft. Tongariro is composed of layers of both … It also presents hazards to pilot visibility, causing pits and frosting on the windshields in the same way that a sandstorm damages an automobile windshield.”. Particle sizes were between 2 and 3 millimetres (0.08 and 0.12 in). The Tongariro eruption has caused significant damage to a nearby tramping hut. NIWA reported the ash cloud contained about 10,000 cubic metres (350,000 cu ft) of ash, and that the ash cloud was 25 kilometres (16 mi) long and 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) wide 39 minutes after the eruption. The ash cloud travelled 250 kilometres (160 mi) in four hours. “Such information can give forecasters a heads-up in terms of changes in ash production and low-level wind shifts that may re-direct these hazardous plumes,” said Miller. The volcano lies in a mostly undeveloped part of the country, and no injuries were reported. Mount Tongariro and its surroundings are also one of the several locations which Peter Jackson chose to shoot The Lord of the Rings film trilogy. Redoubt. The commercial satellite GeoEye-1 captured a high-resolution view of the volcano the same day. Atmosphere It is one of New Zealands most active volcanoes and has the youngest vent in the Tongariro volcanic complex, on the central Plateau of the North Island. The Tongariro complex of volcanic cones and craters was formed by eruptions from at least 12 vents over more than 275,000 years. Mount Tongariro is made up of multiple volcanic cones; the largest and most famous is Ngauruhoe, which last erupted in 1977.  There was no official evacuation but 24 people living along State Highway 46 fled their homes for fear of being isolated. Land “White steam clouds were observed at the historically active Te Maari craters area,” the ministry reported. Caption by Laura Betz. Mt Tongariro had what was initially believed to be a hydrothermal eruption after a month of increased activity. Because of the impact to aircraft operations, the New Zealand Civil Aviation Authority issued advisories to re-route air traffic around the ash plume so as to avoid damage to aircraft engines. The 1,978-meter (6,490 foot) peak is a popular spot for hikers and is right next to Mount Ngauruhoe, the stand-in for Mount Doom in the Lord of the Rings movies. 6 of 20 GeoNet Mt Tongariro, as seen from a webcam at 1pm - about 20 minutes before the eruption. "There have been a couple of eruptions at Taranaki in the last hundred years," she said. A powerful volcanic eruption in South America sent volcanic ash around the world to stop air traffic in New Zealand and Australia. "In 1995, Ruapehu erupted quite significantly." Mount Tongariro is in the Tongariro National Park, New Zealand's first national park and one of the earliest in the world. Tongariro Volcano National Advisory Ã¢â¬â Volcanic Activity Potential Threat to NZ: Cancellation. A new satellite equipped with low-light imaging technology was able to capture the event in the dark of night, just an hour after it began. The image was acquired by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on Suomi NPP, which includes a “day-night band” that can detect volcanic ash plumes lit by moonlight alone. The 1,978-meter (6,490 foot) peak is a popular spot for hikers and is right next to Mount Ngauruhoe, the stand-in for Mount Doom in the Lord of the Rings movies. Image of the Day Tongariro volcano is a large complex volcano with about 12 craters and vents, including the steep stratovolcano Ngauruhoe, which is the focus of most activity in recent times. Tolkien’s epic Lord of the Rings. "There's been several at Nagauruhoe. The park also includes the peaks of Ngauruhoe and Ruapehu, both of which lie to the southwest of Tongariro. Ash and the smell of sulphur was reported in Napier and Hastings. An eruption in 1868 had formed the crater, which was named for a Māori woman of high rank who died around that time. (VIIRS also can detect the visible light emitted by pyroclastic flows and fires, though they are not visible in this particular image.  The smell of sulphur was also reported in Wellington, Nelson and Blenheim. Red Crater last erupted ash in 1926 and contains active fumaroles. Ruapehu, no glaciers exist on Tongariro today. No injuries were reported, and the only significant property damage was to the Department of Conservation's Ketetahi Hut, which is located 1.5 kilometres (0.9 mi) west of the Te Māri Craters. It was set aside (literally "made sacred") in 1887 by Te Heuheu Tukino IV (Horonuku), paramount chief of the Māori Ngati Tuwharetoa iwi and made a national park in order to preserve its natural beauty. It is located 20 kilometres (12 mi) to the southwest of Lake Taupo, and is the northernmost of the three active volcanoes that dominate the landscape of the central North Island. The high altitude and severe alpine climate between March and October cause snowfall in the winter (there are commercial ski-fields at neighbouring Mount Ruapehu) and rain can freeze, causing verglas; in contrast in the mid to late summer, the mountains can be bare apart from remnant patches of snow in south-facing gullies. Tongariro is composed of layers of both lava and tephra and first erupted 275,000 years ago. NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using VIIRS Day Night Band data provided by William Straka, CIMES, University of Wisconsin. The Tongariro Alpine Crossing hiking route passes between Tongariro and Ngauruhoe.